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Paul note 2013 Himalay has stronger renditiong:

And as you can see the regions are actually ridges of rings or braids or knots!

2010 lesser intensity for Himalaya ring:

Also in both years you could clearly see the Mahler patterns, I strongly believe that these are standing-waved-echos off the South American coasts. Since the Ridge filter is actually deals with curvature of data at each pixel, and that repeated pattern looks like the waving echos off the cost of Chile?

Programmer's Manual:

Math:

## Comments

Dara, that is a pretty convincing view of a Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event around the Himalayas

RG gives an interesting take on what is going on at Neven's blog http://neven1.typepad.com/blog/2013/04/sudden-stratospheric-warmings-causes-effects.html

Also, talking about standing wave patterns in the southern east Pacific, there is a very interesting theory making the rounds concerning Rapa Nui (Easter Island). What several research articles are finding is that Rapa Nui may actually be located at a null location or node in the ENSO standing-wave pattern. The lack of strong weather disturbances in the climatology history of Rapa Nui is supporting this viewpoint. Those waves coming off of Chile may overlap Rapa Nui if extended.

[1] Genz, Joseph, and Terry L. Hunt. "El Nino/southern oscillation and Rapa Nui prehistory." Rapa Nui Journal 17.1 (2003): 7-14. [2] Mann, Daniel, et al. "Drought, vegetation change, and human history on Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua, Easter Island)." Quaternary Research 69.1 (2008): 16-28.

Both of these are available as PDFs on Google Scholar.

`Dara, that is a pretty convincing view of a Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) event around the Himalayas RG gives an interesting take on what is going on at Neven's blog <http://neven1.typepad.com/blog/2013/04/sudden-stratospheric-warmings-causes-effects.html> ![ssw](http://neven1.typepad.com/.a/6a0133f03a1e37970b017eea78afbe970d-800wi) Also, talking about standing wave patterns in the southern east Pacific, there is a very interesting theory making the rounds concerning Rapa Nui (Easter Island). What several research articles are finding is that Rapa Nui may actually be located at a null location or node in the ENSO standing-wave pattern. The lack of strong weather disturbances in the climatology history of Rapa Nui is supporting this viewpoint. Those waves coming off of Chile may overlap Rapa Nui if extended. [1] Genz, Joseph, and Terry L. Hunt. "El Nino/southern oscillation and Rapa Nui prehistory." Rapa Nui Journal 17.1 (2003): 7-14. [2] Mann, Daniel, et al. "Drought, vegetation change, and human history on Rapa Nui (Isla de Pascua, Easter Island)." Quaternary Research 69.1 (2008): 16-28. Both of these are available as PDFs on Google Scholar.`

Thanx Paul I read the refs.

So the application of filters and differential operators to volumetric data is quite useful, mind you I did not take a single moving average of any kind, what you see is what is in the data (transformed or operated on per pixel).

I was thinking we could come up with equations that govern these operators or filters on volumetric data as opposed to 1D or 2D regions.

Dara

`Thanx Paul I read the refs. So the application of filters and differential operators to volumetric data is quite useful, mind you I did not take a single moving average of any kind, what you see is what is in the data (transformed or operated on per pixel). I was thinking we could come up with equations that govern these operators or filters on volumetric data as opposed to 1D or 2D regions. Dara`

Dara, Your work looks very promising indeed for uncovering the underlying dynamics.

Reminds me of the E-M fields that occur in a waveguide http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide

`Dara, Your work looks very promising indeed for uncovering the underlying dynamics. Reminds me of the E-M fields that occur in a waveguide <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waveguide> ![waveguide](http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/48/Waveguide_x_EM_rect_TE31.gif/220px-Waveguide_x_EM_rect_TE31.gif)`

Actually the original volume rendering of all I post here looks like the E-M fields gif you posted in #4, but requires a Slicer to view and people did not seem to like to operate a slicer.

So I rewrote the code to dump a flipbook into Youtube for ease of access.

I am almost convinced that something like Maxwell Eq could be formulated to get some good models for some of the data patterns we see. In particular the braided solutions to differential equations.

If you like that E-M field rendering I could make a large number of Slicers you could view to get ideas how these volumetric data are put together.

We are working on automating this process, so you could login into an account and most of the code is there you just need to change a few thigns and fire off a large number of Slicers.

`Actually the original volume rendering of all I post here looks like the E-M fields gif you posted in #4, but requires a Slicer to view and people did not seem to like to operate a slicer. So I rewrote the code to dump a flipbook into Youtube for ease of access. I am almost convinced that something like Maxwell Eq could be formulated to get some good models for some of the data patterns we see. In particular the braided solutions to differential equations. If you like that E-M field rendering I could make a large number of Slicers you could view to get ideas how these volumetric data are put together. We are working on automating this process, so you could login into an account and most of the code is there you just need to change a few thigns and fire off a large number of Slicers.`

Dara, I am getting most of your Mathematica CDF plugins to operate, so kudos to you for trying out that functionality.

`Dara, I am getting most of your Mathematica CDF plugins to operate, so kudos to you for trying out that functionality.`

ONE. Paul it is great that you use the CDFs, I will make a lot more, and hopefully much of it will be computed and delivered by our servers

TWO. I see interconnected loops in the Ridge filter! I was expecting all kinds of curves but not so much looped and interconnected.

`ONE. Paul it is great that you use the CDFs, I will make a lot more, and hopefully much of it will be computed and delivered by our servers TWO. I see interconnected loops in the Ridge filter! I was expecting all kinds of curves but not so much looped and interconnected.`

Any standing wave patterns are dynamite for understanding and simplifying the math. When the standing wave pattern shows clearly fixed nodes in the spatial dimension, I start to feel more comfortable that the temporal dimension may in fact be separable from the spatial dimension.

In particular I was counting on this separability when I started to look at the sloshing dynamics -- if Tahiti and Darwin are fairly strong fixed-position anti-node dipoles then it may indeed be possible to try a temporal nonlinear wave equation as a first cut.

As a rule, aren't physicists always seeking symmetry and patterns?

So keep on doing what you are doing and I will continue to try to keep up.

`Any standing wave patterns are dynamite for understanding and simplifying the math. When the standing wave pattern shows clearly fixed nodes in the spatial dimension, I start to feel more comfortable that the temporal dimension may in fact be separable from the spatial dimension. In particular I was counting on this separability when I started to look at the sloshing dynamics -- if Tahiti and Darwin are fairly strong fixed-position anti-node dipoles then it may indeed be possible to try a temporal nonlinear wave equation as a first cut. As a rule, aren't physicists always seeking symmetry and patterns? So keep on doing what you are doing and I will continue to try to keep up.`

Dara,

Here is a paper describing biennial variations centered on the Himalayas

Bertolani, Laura, Massimo Bollasina, and Gianni Tartari. "Recent biennial variability of meteorological features in the Eastern Highland Himalayas." Geophysical research letters 27.15 (2000): 2185-2188. PDF

Compare this to the odd/even year pairing here, which is much more apparent:

http://forum.azimuthproject.org/discussion/1480/tidal-records-and-enso/?Focus=12579#Comment_12579

`Dara, Here is a paper describing biennial variations centered on the Himalayas Bertolani, Laura, Massimo Bollasina, and Gianni Tartari. "Recent biennial variability of meteorological features in the Eastern Highland Himalayas." Geophysical research letters 27.15 (2000): 2185-2188. [PDF](http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/1999GL011198/pdf) Compare this to the odd/even year pairing here, which is much more apparent: <http://forum.azimuthproject.org/discussion/1480/tidal-records-and-enso/?Focus=12579#Comment_12579>`

WOW! Paul, downloded the paper I go and download more years and run the filter

`WOW! Paul, downloded the paper I go and download more years and run the filter`

Here's a new paper describing El Nino stratopheric pathways and showing that sudden stratospheric warming is more frequent in El Nino years.

Amy H Butler, Lorenzo M Polvani and Clara Deser, Separating the stratospheric and tropospheric pathways of El Niño–Southern Oscillation teleconnections

NCAR's AtmosNews is worth subscribing to for such notifications.

`Here's a new paper describing El Nino stratopheric pathways and showing that sudden stratospheric warming is more frequent in El Nino years. Amy H Butler, Lorenzo M Polvani and Clara Deser, [Separating the stratospheric and tropospheric pathways of El Niño–Southern Oscillation teleconnections](http://iopscience.iop.org/1748-9326/9/2/024014/) NCAR's [AtmosNews](http://www2.ucar.edu/atmosnews/in-brief/11590/el-ni-o-s-high-altitude-highway) is worth subscribing to for such notifications.`

For some parts of ENSO, the teleconnections seem to be vertical. Into the stratosphere for QBO and SSW.

And of course, really vertical to the sun

Narasimha, Roddam, and Subarna Bhattacharyya. "A wavelet cross-spectral analysis of solar–ENSO–rainfall connections in the Indian monsoons." Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis 28.3 (2010): 285-295.

`For some parts of ENSO, the teleconnections seem to be vertical. Into the stratosphere for QBO and SSW. And of course, really vertical to the sun Narasimha, Roddam, and Subarna Bhattacharyya. "A wavelet cross-spectral analysis of solar–ENSO–rainfall connections in the Indian monsoons." Applied and Computational Harmonic Analysis 28.3 (2010): 285-295.`

I'm trying to get some sort of handle on monsoon connections to ENSO so thanks again.

`I'm trying to get some sort of handle on monsoon connections to ENSO so thanks again.`

Jim, The paper I mentioned has an odd graph (link) .

The bottom panel has a sunspot number with a period of ~5 years instead of the generally accepted 10-11 years. Or am I misreading this completely?

I think the axis are shrunk by a factor of two because the text says data from 1871–1990. Maybe the tic marks should be 1880, 1920, 1960 ?

`Jim, The paper I mentioned has an odd graph ([link](http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1063520310000266/pdf?md5=15ac3147d3136e3d68389bab4a151c99&pid=1-s2.0-S1063520310000266-main.pdf)) . ![monsoon](http://imageshack.com/a/img909/3460/6PpJxd.gif) The bottom panel has a sunspot number with a period of ~5 years instead of the generally accepted 10-11 years. Or am I misreading this completely? I think the axis are shrunk by a factor of two because the text says data from 1871–1990. Maybe the tic marks should be 1880, 1920, 1960 ?`

Hello Jim

Laplacian

Check out the Himalayan region, you see bright colouring this means the laplacian is high or there is a leakage.

But look at the Ridge Filter and you see there is a ring around same region and it is separate from the surrounding areas,therefore there is a teleconnection to another area on the planet via stratosphere perhaps?

I visualize this like a knot or braid topological structure within the atmosphere and underneath the oceans, the shape of this knot or braid is related to some energy function.

Dara

`Hello Jim [Laplacian](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P8nKYVsBfgg) Check out the Himalayan region, you see bright colouring this means the laplacian is high or there is a leakage. But look at the Ridge Filter and you see there is a ring around same region and it is separate from the surrounding areas,therefore there is a teleconnection to another area on the planet via stratosphere perhaps? I visualize this like a knot or braid topological structure within the atmosphere and underneath the oceans, the shape of this knot or braid is related to some energy function. Dara`

1960 makes more sense to me:

It doesn't seem credible that one of the 3 graphs has twice the time span or whatever. I haven't looked to try and imagine what the first 2 graphs look like over a doubled timescale.

`1960 makes more sense to me: ![sunspots](https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/61621163/Images/SIDCAnnualSunspotNumberSince1700.gif ) It doesn't seem credible that one of the 3 graphs has twice the time span or whatever. I haven't looked to try and imagine what the first 2 graphs look like over a doubled timescale.`

That's another great vid Dara. What is leakage?

PS Is it possible you can stick some date counters on your movies so we can get a perception of the time scale as well?

`That's another great vid Dara. What is leakage? PS Is it possible you can stick some date counters on your movies so we can get a perception of the time scale as well?`

I think I made some real progress again. Looking at one of the forcing and Mathieu/Hill modulation functions that I have been using to fit a solution to SOI, it appeared to have the same periodicity 10-11 years as the TSI anomaly --- as a sunspot number this is shown in the comment #16 that Jim posted.

What I tried to do was break up the TSI in two intervals, a varying increasing portion that runs from 1880 to 1980, and then a relatively flat and more periodic interval after 1980. Then I modeled this as two sets of sinusoids that roughly follow this envelope. That is the two if-then conditionals highlighted in yellow in the chart below (the transition point is indicated as the short red vertical line on the chart). This applied as both a forcing and as a Mathieu modulation to the ocean -- if this is a heating modulation then conceivably it changes the characteristics via small density changes.

The reverse blue highlighted region is the QBO forcing.

Suddenly there are not as many free unattached variables to play around with as I had before. There is one that appears to be connected to the Chandler wobble (~6.4 years) and then a couple of long term 70 and 100 year slow modulations of the characteristic frequency.

`I think I made some real progress again. Looking at one of the forcing and Mathieu/Hill modulation functions that I have been using to [fit a solution to SOI](http://forum.azimuthproject.org/discussion/1504/symbolic-regression-machine-learning-and-enso-time-series/?Focus=12935#Comment_12935), it appeared to have the same periodicity 10-11 years as the TSI anomaly --- as a sunspot number this is shown in the comment #16 that Jim posted. What I tried to do was break up the TSI in two intervals, a varying increasing portion that runs from 1880 to 1980, and then a relatively flat and more periodic interval after 1980. Then I modeled this as two sets of sinusoids that roughly follow this envelope. That is the two if-then conditionals highlighted in yellow in the chart below (the transition point is indicated as the short red vertical line on the chart). This applied as both a forcing and as a Mathieu modulation to the ocean -- if this is a heating modulation then conceivably it changes the characteristics via small density changes. ![TSI SOIM](http://imageshack.com/a/img661/4143/Y3AGa4.gif) The reverse blue highlighted region is the QBO forcing. Suddenly there are not as many free unattached variables to play around with as I had before. There is one that appears to be connected to the Chandler wobble (~6.4 years) and then a couple of long term 70 and 100 year slow modulations of the characteristic frequency.`