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# References

Here's my favored method for citing journal articles:

1) When the original source is open-access, I try to make the title of the paper into a link to that source, e.g.:

2) When the original source is not-open access, I try to make the journal title into a link to the original source, but the paper title into a link to any source that happens to be available, e.g.:

The point of this system is that:

• if the paper title is underlined you can click on it and get the paper for free (unless the link has broken in the meantime)

• if the paper title is not underlined it means you probably can't get the paper for free (unless someone has made it available in the meantime)

• you can always see a reference to the original source.

In case 2, sometimes I get lazy and don't include a link to the original source, e.g.:

This is not ideal, but there is still enough information to quickly find a link to the original source using Google. I encourage people (including myself) to improve such entries by bringing up to the standard described in 2. This is something that anyone can do whenever they have a bit of spare time.

The goal here is to make information quickly accessible to everyone while still preserving good scholarship.

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1.

if the paper title is underlined you can click on it and get the paper for free (unless the link has broken in the meantime)

If it is legitimately free, a better thing to do might be to actually upload the paper via Azimuth wiki. That way, it will always be available.

Comment Source:>if the paper title is underlined you can click on it and get the paper for free (unless the link has broken in the meantime) If it is legitimately free, a better thing to do might be to actually upload the paper via Azimuth wiki. That way, it will always be available.
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2.

That sounds good (although I've known image heavy pdf papers to weigh in at over 5 MB) where applicable. I have known some people who've contacted organisations like IEEE they've submitted papers to and get permission to host the paper on their website without that permission allowing for someone else to host a copy, so it's unfortunately it's often not clear what the case is for a given link to a pdf.

Comment Source:That sounds good (although I've known image heavy pdf papers to weigh in at over 5 MB) where applicable. I have known some people who've contacted organisations like IEEE they've submitted papers to and get permission to host the paper on their website without that permission allowing for someone else to host a copy, so it's unfortunately it's often not clear what the case is for a given link to a pdf.
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3.
edited November 2010

I've been avoiding uploading pdf's to the Azimuth Project because the legality of this is dubious in many cases.

Comment Source:I've been avoiding uploading pdf's to the Azimuth Project because the legality of this is dubious in many cases.
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4.

I would agree with that: having a publicly accessible site of pdfs is best avoided.

Caution is required when reposting copyrighted material, even if the source is acknowledged. Fair-use for study may be a defense, but I'm no lawyer. Clipping a figure from Nature for example may require permission (freely given perhaps, but still required).

The Meinhausen papers led me to the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science at the ETH (IACETH), so in this case, we are dealing with institutional repositories of the one of the authors.

The paper Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 deg C (Nature, 2009, 458, 1158-1162) links to the repository of one of the authors, Prof Reto Knutti. The second paper, "Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne", can be linked to the same institutional repository, though Knutti is not a co-author. The two Nature papers are back-to-back and received wide coverage, including a Nature Commentary by the authors, The Exit Strategy, a Nature News & Views, Too much of a bad thing and even a Nature Editorial, Time to act.

I'll check and amend the references where needed.

Comment Source:I would agree with that: having a publicly accessible site of pdfs is best avoided. Caution is required when reposting copyrighted material, even if the source is acknowledged. Fair-use for study may be a defense, but I'm no lawyer. Clipping a figure from Nature for example may require permission (freely given perhaps, but still required). The Meinhausen papers led me to the [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/) at the ETH (IACETH), so in this case, we are dealing with institutional repositories of the one of the authors. The paper [_Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 deg C_](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/meinshausen09nat.pdf) (_Nature_, 2009, *458*, 1158-1162) links to the repository of one of the authors, [Prof Reto Knutti](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir). The second paper, ["Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne"](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/allen09nat.pdf), can be linked to the same institutional repository, though Knutti is not a co-author. The two Nature papers are back-to-back and received wide coverage, including a Nature _Commentary_ by the authors, [_The Exit Strategy_](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/allen09nrcc.pdf), a Nature _News & Views_, [_Too much of a bad thing_](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/schmidt09nat.pdf) and even a Nature _Editorial_, [_Time to act_](http://www.iac.ethz.ch/people/knuttir/papers/editorial09nat.pdf). I'll check and amend the references where needed.
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5.
I would like to put the articles I refer to at the bottom of the page, but also with a numeral link in the text that refers to the specific article (such that the reader easily knows where to look for which detail).
Is there any easy way of doing so, that makes the counting of the references automatically, like is done in latex?
Comment Source:I would like to put the articles I refer to at the bottom of the page, but also with a numeral link in the text that refers to the specific article (such that the reader easily knows where to look for which detail). Is there any easy way of doing so, that makes the counting of the references automatically, like is done in latex?
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6.

Frederik wrote:

I would like to put the articles I refer to at the bottom of the page, but also with a numeral link in the text that refers to the specific article (such that the reader easily knows where to look for which detail). Is there any easy way of doing so, that makes the counting of the references automatically, like is done in latex?

I've been deliberately avoiding numbered references in the Azimuth Project. I find it more user-friendly to adopt a style like this, where a text will be mentioned in the section it's discussed. It's a style that's deliberately different from that of a scholarly article.

But if you really need numbered references, you can do them like this. (You'll see a bunch near the bottom of the page, and you can click "edit" to see how they were done.)

Comment Source:Frederik wrote: >I would like to put the articles I refer to at the bottom of the page, but also with a numeral link in the text that refers to the specific article (such that the reader easily knows where to look for which detail). Is there any easy way of doing so, that makes the counting of the references automatically, like is done in latex? I've been deliberately avoiding numbered references in the Azimuth Project. I find it more user-friendly to adopt a style like [this](http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/Enhanced+weathering), where a text will be mentioned in the section it's discussed. It's a style that's deliberately different from that of a scholarly article. But if you _really need_ numbered references, you can do them like [this](http://ncatlab.org/nlab/show/Frobenius+algebra). (You'll see a bunch near the bottom of the page, and you can click "edit" to see how they were done.)
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7.
edited January 2011

I added some information about the correct style for references here. There's more to say, but for now:

## Referring to a paper in a journal

Here's how to refer to a paper. Write something like this:

* E. Rignot, _et al._, [Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling](http://www.phys.uu.nl/~broeke/home_files/MB_pubs_pdf/2008_Rignot_NatGeo.pdf), _[Nature Geoscience](http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v1/n2/full/ngeo102.html)_ **1** (2008), 106–110.

which produces this:

Note:

• Include a clickable link on the paper's title if and only if clicking on that link will give a free copy of the paper.

• Include a clickable link on the journal's name if and only if clicking on that link will take you to the paper on the journal's website (which may not be available for free).

It goes like this:

• Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Papertitle, JournalTitle Volumenumber (Year), firstpage-lastpage.

If there are more authors than you can stand, use et al..

## Referring to a book

Here's how to refer to a book. Write something like this:

* James Lyle Peterson, _Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems_, Prentice Hall, New York, 1981.

which produces this:

• James Lyle Peterson, Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems, Prentice Hall, New York, 1981.

It goes like this:

• Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, The Book Title, Publisher, Locationofpublication, Yearofpublication.

If the book is freely available, you can make the book's title into a clickable link, as for journal articles.

## Referring to Wikipedia or Scholarpedia

To refer to Wikipedia, write something like this:

* [Petri Net](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petri_net), Wikipedia.

which produces this:

Scholarpedia articles also have 'curators':

* Carl Adam Petri and Wolfgang Reisig, [Petri net](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Petri_net), Scholarpedia.

produces

• Carl Adam Petri and Wolfgang Reisig, Petri net, Scholarpedia.

## Referring to a website

If the website has authors, use their names. Type something like this:

* Wil van der Aalst, Vincent Almering, and Hermen Wijbenga, [Interactive tutorials on Petri nets](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/introductions/aalst/).

which produces

If the website has no authors but gains credibility from being based at a reputable location, you can name the location. Type something like this:

* [The Petri Nets World](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/), Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg.

which produces:

For the homepage of an organization or person, you can type something like this:

* [John Baez](http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/), homepage.

which produces

Comment Source:I added some information about the correct style for references [here](http://www.azimuthproject.org/azimuth/show/How+to#References). There's more to say, but for now: ## Referring to a paper in a journal ## Here's how to refer to a paper. Write something like this: * E. Rignot, _et al._, [Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling](http://www.phys.uu.nl/~broeke/home_files/MB_pubs_pdf/2008_Rignot_NatGeo.pdf), _[Nature Geoscience](http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v1/n2/full/ngeo102.html)_ **1** (2008), 106–110. which produces this: * E. Rignot _et al._, [Recent Antarctic ice mass loss from radar interferometry and regional climate modelling](http://www.phys.uu.nl/~broeke/home_files/MB_pubs_pdf/2008_Rignot_NatGeo.pdf), _[Nature Geoscience](http://www.nature.com/ngeo/journal/v1/n2/full/ngeo102.html)_ **1** (2008), 106–110. Note: * Include a clickable link on the paper's title if and only if clicking on that link will give a _free_ copy of the paper. * Include a clickable link on the journal's name if and only if clicking on that link will take you to the paper on the journal's website (which may not be available for free). It goes like this: * Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, Papertitle, _JournalTitle_ **Volumenumber** (Year), firstpage-lastpage. If there are more authors than you can stand, use _et al._. ## Referring to a book ## Here's how to refer to a book. Write something like this: * James Lyle Peterson, _Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems_, Prentice Hall, New York, 1981. which produces this: * James Lyle Peterson, _Petri Net Theory and the Modeling of Systems_, Prentice Hall, New York, 1981. It goes like this: * Firstname Lastname, Firstname Lastname and Firstname Lastname, _The Book Title_, Publisher, Locationofpublication, Yearofpublication. If the book is freely available, you can make the book's title into a clickable link, as for journal articles. ## Referring to Wikipedia or Scholarpedia To refer to Wikipedia, write something like this: * [Petri Net](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petri_net), Wikipedia. which produces this: * [Petri Net](http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petri_net), Wikipedia. Scholarpedia articles also have 'curators': * Carl Adam Petri and Wolfgang Reisig, [Petri net](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Petri_net), Scholarpedia. produces * Carl Adam Petri and Wolfgang Reisig, [Petri net](http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Petri_net), Scholarpedia. ## Referring to a website ## If the website has authors, use their names. Type something like this: * Wil van der Aalst, Vincent Almering, and Hermen Wijbenga, [Interactive tutorials on Petri nets](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/introductions/aalst/). which produces * Wil van der Aalst, Vincent Almering, and Hermen Wijbenga, [Interactive tutorials on Petri nets](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/introductions/aalst/). If the website has no authors but gains credibility from being based at a reputable location, you can name the location. Type something like this: * [The Petri Nets World](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/), Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg. which produces: * [The Petri Nets World](http://www.informatik.uni-hamburg.de/TGI/PetriNets/), Department of Informatics, University of Hamburg. For the homepage of an organization or person, you can type something like this: * [John Baez](http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/), homepage. which produces * [John Baez](http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/), homepage.
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8.

If we are referring to articles that appear on the arXiv, should we link to the arXiv instead of the pdf?

The readers can easily access the pdf from the arXiv link, and will automatically view updates & corrections too.

Comment Source:If we are referring to articles that appear on the arXiv, should we link to the arXiv instead of the pdf? The readers can easily access the pdf from the arXiv link, and will automatically view updates & corrections too.
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9.

I have a few questions.

*For non-journal papers (federal agency, conference, and so on) do we try to include as much information as journal articles? For instance the publication date or date it was last updated, the agency paper name/number, and so on.

*For websites, do we include the time created or time last updated if it's posted on the site?

*If a report was prepared by so-and-so organization, should we cite the organization as the authors?

*Should we or shouldn't we cite manufacturer specifications?

Comment Source:I have a few questions. *For non-journal papers (federal agency, conference, and so on) do we try to include as much information as journal articles? For instance the publication date or date it was last updated, the agency paper name/number, and so on. *For websites, do we include the time created or time last updated if it's posted on the site? *If a report was prepared by so-and-so organization, should we cite the organization as the authors? *Should we or shouldn't we cite manufacturer specifications?