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# Definitions from Seven Sketches in Compositionality

Mathematics is a language. With this idea we can try using tools that language learners use. I chopped the definitions from the book into a deck of Anki cards that I want to share with everyone: https://drive.google.com/file/d/11sWFVW7ixW-r2TEEGip3Cu5AQDvfOJtU/view?usp=sharing

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1.

Anki cards were great when I was taking language classes. I never thought to use it for math.

Comment Source:Anki cards were great when I was taking language classes. I never thought to use it for math.
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2.

Ever since I came across Michael Nielsen's tweetstorm about using Anki for work, I have been wondering how to go about doing it. Thank you for this! :)

Comment Source:Ever since I came across Michael Nielsen's tweetstorm about using Anki for work, I have been wondering how to go about doing it. Thank you for this! :)
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3.

Cool! Alas, I don't know how to open an .apkg file. What kind of file is that?

It would be great to have the definitions listed somehow in the Azimuth Wiki. The LaTeX of the book can be gotten from the arXiv as a gzipped tar file. Since we've got so many smart programmers here, maybe someone could figure out a way to yank out just the definitions and put them into a page on that Wiki. It might require work or cleverness, because the Wiki can't handle LaTeX macros. By the way, if anyone has questions about the Azimuth Wiki just let me know - please ask before you start editing it.

Comment Source:Cool! Alas, I don't know how to open an .apkg file. What kind of file is that? It would be great to have the definitions listed somehow in the [[Azimuth Wiki]]. The LaTeX of the book can be gotten [from the arXiv as a gzipped tar file](https://arxiv.org/format/1803.05316). Since we've got so many smart programmers here, maybe someone could figure out a way to yank out just the definitions and put them into a page on that Wiki. It might require work or cleverness, because the Wiki can't handle LaTeX macros. By the way, if anyone has questions about the [[Azimuth Wiki]] just let me know - please ask before you start editing it.
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4.

Anki is a smart flash card system. It uses spaced repetition to try to optimize time spent reviewing and learning/memorizing content. The apkg file is meant to be opened with this program. It can use LaTeX, among other things, for rendering parts of the cards.

Thanks Thrina, I will download this later today. I was going to start my own version of this today as well.

Comment Source:[Anki](https://apps.ankiweb.net) is a smart flash card system. It uses spaced repetition to try to optimize time spent reviewing and learning/memorizing content. The apkg file is meant to be opened with this program. It can use LaTeX, among other things, for rendering parts of the cards. Thanks Thrina, I will download this later today. I was going to start my own version of this today as well.
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5.

A few thoughts/opinions on pulling out definitions:

1. I couldn't find any copyright/license information, so I personally wouldn't publish the definitions anywhere without permission from the authors. (And if we got a more general permission, there's all sorts of great stuff we could do! It'd be lovely to see Creative Commons licenses become more widely used, but I'm an outsider to academia these days so I have no idea what the barriers might be.)

2. I probably won't have time to work on this, but if I'd get started by just fiddling around without knowing whether I'll get anywhere. Which isn't something I'd do without the license stuff sorted out. I imagine others might be the same way, so if someone (maybe someone who already knows the authors?) wants to do that, even that might be helpful.

3. Using the Azimuth Wiki sounds great, but if anyone takes this on and that part is hard (e.g. for the macros reason John mentioned), I'd encourage you to not treat that as a barrier and be open to publishing elsewhere instead.

4. If this kind of tool doesn't already exist (it's worth spending more than the 30s I just did searching Google), I bet it would be a generally useful bit of software that other people (outside this group) would appreciate too, for other books/papers.

5. The definitions include \index{...}, which seems like it should make it plausible to programmatically pull out "What is this a definition of?", e.g. for the flash cards. For example, here's the source LaTeX for equivalence relation:

\begin{definition}\label{def.equivalence_relation}\index{equivalence relation} Let $A$ be a set. An \emph{equivalence relation} on $A$ is a binary relation, let's give it infix notation $\sim$, satisfying the following three properties: \begin{enumerate} \item $a\sim a$, for all $a\in A$, \item $a\sim b$ iff $b\sim a$, for all $a,b\in A$, and \item if $a\sim b$ and $b\sim c$ then $a\sim c$, for all $a,b,c\in A$. \end{enumerate} These properties are called \emph{reflexivity}, \emph{symmetry}, and \emph{transitivity}, respectively. \index{reflexivity}\index{symmetry}\index{transitivity} \end{definition}

Comment Source:A few thoughts/opinions on pulling out definitions: 1. I couldn't find any copyright/license information, so I personally wouldn't publish the definitions anywhere without permission from the authors. (And if we got a more general permission, there's all sorts of great stuff we could do! It'd be lovely to see Creative Commons licenses become more widely used, but I'm an outsider to academia these days so I have no idea what the barriers might be.) 1. I probably won't have time to work on this, but if I'd get started by just fiddling around without knowing whether I'll get anywhere. Which isn't something I'd do without the license stuff sorted out. I imagine others might be the same way, so if someone (maybe someone who already knows the authors?) wants to do that, even that might be helpful. 1. Using the Azimuth Wiki sounds great, but if anyone takes this on and that part is hard (e.g. for the macros reason John mentioned), I'd encourage you to not treat that as a barrier and be open to publishing elsewhere instead. 1. If this kind of tool doesn't already exist (it's worth spending more than the 30s I just did searching Google), I bet it would be a generally useful bit of software that other people (outside this group) would appreciate too, for other books/papers. 1. The definitions include \index{...}, which seems like it should make it plausible to programmatically pull out "What is this a definition of?", e.g. for the flash cards. For example, here's the source LaTeX for *equivalence relation*:  \begin{definition}\label{def.equivalence_relation}\index{equivalence relation} Let $A$ be a set. An \emph{equivalence relation} on $A$ is a binary relation, let's give it infix notation $\sim$, satisfying the following three properties: \begin{enumerate} \item $a\sim a$, for all $a\in A$, \item $a\sim b$ iff $b\sim a$, for all $a,b\in A$, and \item if $a\sim b$ and $b\sim c$ then $a\sim c$, for all $a,b,c\in A$. \end{enumerate} These properties are called \emph{reflexivity}, \emph{symmetry}, and \emph{transitivity}, respectively. \index{reflexivity}\index{symmetry}\index{transitivity} \end{definition} 
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6.

apkg file is anki format that you can import in an Anki application, be it desktop, android, or an apple device. The official manual describes how to import decks https://apps.ankiweb.net/docs/am-manual.html

Thank you for bringing up the copyright question. I was slightly worried about it and that's why I decided against creating a public shared deck on the anki platform. I hope sharing the apkg here will be considered a fair use akin to making lecture notes and sharing them with classmates. If anyone objects, I can remove it, of course.

The deck I made contains pictures with the screenshots from the book, I didn't realize that tex sources were available too. The screenshots are, probably, not suitable for the wiki. Once the tar archive is unpacked, all definitions can be pulled in one command:

for i in C*.tex; do sed -n '/\\begin{definition}/,/\\end{definition}/p' $i; done > definitions.tex Comment Source:apkg file is anki format that you can import in an Anki application, be it desktop, android, or an apple device. The official manual describes how to import decks https://apps.ankiweb.net/docs/am-manual.html Thank you for bringing up the copyright question. I was slightly worried about it and that's why I decided against creating a public shared deck on the anki platform. I hope sharing the apkg here will be considered a fair use akin to making lecture notes and sharing them with classmates. If anyone objects, I can remove it, of course. The deck I made contains pictures with the screenshots from the book, I didn't realize that tex sources were available too. The screenshots are, probably, not suitable for the wiki. Once the tar archive is unpacked, all definitions can be pulled in one command:  for i in C*.tex; do sed -n '/\\begin{definition}/,/\\end{definition}/p'$i; done > definitions.tex 
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7.

What is the license on the arXiv document? I'd like to extend Thrina's work with a script; I'd like to ensure I properly respect the authors' rights. I've also noticed that the arXiv docs aren't necessarily the most up-to-date version of the book. I figure it's a good an exercise as any to update the outputs of the scraper scripts according to the most recent PDF and discussions in this forum.

I'd also like to start putting answers to exercises into an Anki deck. If I do that, should I keep the deck for personal use or would it be OK to place the scripts for generating it in Github?

Comment Source:What is the license on the arXiv document? I'd like to extend Thrina's work with a script; I'd like to ensure I properly respect the authors' rights. I've also noticed that the arXiv docs aren't necessarily the most up-to-date version of the book. I figure it's a good an exercise as any to update the outputs of the scraper scripts according to the most recent PDF and discussions in this forum. I'd also like to start putting answers to exercises into an Anki deck. If I do that, should I keep the deck for personal use or would it be OK to place the scripts for generating it in Github?
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edited April 2018

Jared wrote:

What is the license on the arXiv document?

I believe it's just the minimal license giving the arXiv the right to hold this material in perpetuity. When I last checked, David and Brendan were planning to publish this book with MIT Press, without any sort of open access, and with edits made after a certain point only appearing in the MIT Press version, not the version on the arXiv. I've been trying to talk Brendan out of this. But this is one reason I keep urging people to download the latest edited copy from David's website: I have no idea how long this version will be available, and the arXiv version may never be as good.

I'd also like to start putting answers to exercises into an Anki deck. If I do that, should I keep the deck for personal use or would it be OK to place the scripts for generating it in Github?

I think I should ask Brendan and David about this. They are not open access crusaders like me, but they're nice guys, so they may say it's okay. But I'd be hard pressed to explain what an Anki deck is, since I've never used one and never even heard of one before this course. How should I describe it?

Comment Source:Jared wrote: > What is the license on the arXiv document? I believe it's just the minimal license giving the arXiv the right to hold this material in perpetuity. When I last checked, David and Brendan were planning to publish this book with MIT Press, without any sort of open access, and with edits made after a certain point only appearing in the MIT Press version, not the version on the arXiv. I've been trying to talk Brendan out of this. But this is one reason I keep urging people to download the latest edited copy from David's website: I have no idea how long this version will be available, and the arXiv version may never be as good. > I'd also like to start putting answers to exercises into an Anki deck. If I do that, should I keep the deck for personal use or would it be OK to place the scripts for generating it in Github? I think I should ask Brendan and David about this. They are not open access crusaders like me, but they're nice guys, so they may say it's okay. But I'd be hard pressed to explain what an Anki deck is, since I've never used one and never even heard of one before this course. How should I describe it?
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9.

How should I describe [Anki decks]?

Jared Summers gives a good description above:

Anki is a smart flash card system. It uses spaced repetition to try to optimize time spent reviewing and learning/memorizing content.

I will refrain from posting anything to Github without a green light from Brendan and David.

Comment Source:> How should I describe [Anki decks]? Jared Summers gives a good description [above](https://forum.azimuthproject.org/discussion/comment/16044/#Comment_16044): > Anki is a smart flash card system. It uses spaced repetition to try to optimize time spent reviewing and learning/memorizing content. I will refrain from posting anything to Github without a green light from Brendan and David.
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10.

David Spivak writes:

Oh, Anki is great! I'm totally fine with this. Brendan?

Brendan Fong writes:

I'm totally fine with it too! In fact, I encourage them to do it!

So, go ahead! In the unlikely event there are legal problems with MIT Press I'll cite "fair use" and these emails from them.

Comment Source:David Spivak writes: > Oh, Anki is great! I'm totally fine with this. Brendan? Brendan Fong writes: > I'm totally fine with it too! In fact, I encourage them to do it! So, go ahead! In the unlikely event there are legal problems with MIT Press I'll cite "fair use" and these emails from them.
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11.
edited May 2018

Regarding Anki:

I've been working on adding definitions and notes to my own Anki deck (I find creating them is a useful exercise on its own). For things that are just text/math this isn't a problem. However, sometimes I wanted to add diagrams and didn't want to keep creating new images and saving them to the media folder (in particular, this becomes a problem if I want to update them later).

I'm something of a $$\LaTeX$$ newb (I've only dabbled over the years, office work means MS Word for every document). However I came across the TikZ package. I haven't done a lot yet, but I've had some luck with making diagrams using this so far. The nice thing is that I can enter them in as $$\LaTeX$$ and update them as I need. I can also copy/paste diagrams if I have one that's got most of what I want but I need to add or remove a detail.

I found the directions on this StackExchange post got me where I needed so that I could use TikZ in Anki.

This may be old hat to folks more experienced with $$\LaTeX$$ than me, but for the rest this may be a useful addition to your toolset.

And I just came across Visual TikZ.

Comment Source:Regarding Anki: I've been working on adding definitions and notes to my own Anki deck (I find creating them is a useful exercise on its own). For things that are just text/math this isn't a problem. However, sometimes I wanted to add diagrams and didn't want to keep creating new images and saving them to the media folder (in particular, this becomes a problem if I want to update them later). I'm something of a \$$\LaTeX\$$ newb (I've only dabbled over the years, office work means MS Word for every document). However I came across the [TikZ package](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PGF/TikZ). I haven't done a lot yet, but I've had some luck with making diagrams using this so far. The nice thing is that I can enter them in as \$$\LaTeX\$$ and update them as I need. I can also copy/paste diagrams if I have one that's got most of what I want but I need to add or remove a detail. I found the directions on this [StackExchange post](https://tex.stackexchange.com/questions/320139/how-to-get-anki-working-with-tikz-based-packages) got me where I needed so that I could use TikZ in Anki. This may be old hat to folks more experienced with \$$\LaTeX\$$ than me, but for the rest this may be a useful addition to your toolset. And I just came across [Visual TikZ](http://tug.ctan.org/info/visualtikz/VisualTikZ.pdf).