A point about terminology.
In the introduction you make a good, clarifying distinction between "data driven" and "physical" models.
I think that the counterpart to data-driven models includes physical models, but is broader than that. For instance, consider a predictive model for a game of blackjack, where the model is used as part of a program that plays in a game with specific, known opponents.
The input to the program may contain rules such as: Jim will always hold if his hand exceeds 17. On the basis of such rules, and the observable portion of the game, the model makes ongoing predictions about the probabilities of various events.
I wouldn't call these rules "physical" (one could stretch the term, but it becomes questionable), but they are part of the opposite of data-driven models.
What about theory-driven models versus data-driven models?