This structure is a recurrent theme in data processing languages, which can be seen in various forms in APL, J, K, KDB, and R.

It formalizes the commonsense notion of the data structure that is presented, for example, by a spreadsheet with labeled columns, each of a definite type.

In the remainder of this thread, we will be looking at some of the interesting and useful algebraic operations that can be defined over Series and DataFrames, and illustrating these operators by their implementation in Pandas/Python.

We will also see that this range of operators can become more interesting and more useful, when the indexes for the data frames are hierarchical.