**Puzzle 171.** Yes, \\(\Phi(E,c) = \text{true}\\) because we can first walk from \\(E\\) to \\(N\\) and then fly from \\(N\\) to \\(c\\). I hadn't noticed this when creating this puzzle! Like Matthew, I thought the answer was \\(\text{false}\\).

**Puzzle 172.** Yes, \\(\Phi(E,e) = \text{true}\\) because we can first walk from \\(E\\) to \\(N\\) and then fly from \\(N\\) to \\(e\\).

I should have given an example that was a bit different, like \\(\Phi(S,d)\\).