@WebHubTel wrote:

> "I do get your point, though, which can be boiled down to saying: what's the point of studying equilibrium solutions if the system is being driven by external forces, so there is no equilibrium."

Distinction perhaps between equilibrium and steady-state. Tidal cycles for a given geographical location will not deviate from predictions over decades. Even though this has the properties of a stationary equilibrium, we are taught that this should be referred to as steady-state behavior since forcing is supplied externally. The only equilibrium behavior observable for this system would be to remove the moon and the sun, and only then will the sea surface achieve a stable "equilibrium" level.

Isn't that wild? The equilibrium calculation is trivially uninteresting. This happens in electrical circuit theory as well:

> ["The simplest example is a broken circuit vs a closed circuit consisting of a battery and a wire. The first is in equilibrium, the second is in a steady state."](https://forum.allaboutcircuits.com/threads/difference-between-steady-state-and-equilibrium.70546/)

The "broken circuit" is essentially the one where someone clipped a connection and the circuit doesn't do anything. Totally uninteresting, yet that's the definition for equilibrium.

But then if [one reads further across disciplines](http://www.projects.bucknell.edu/LearnThermo/pages/Equilibrium%20and%20Steady%20State/equilibrium-and-steady-state.html):
> "Equilibrium and Steady State. A state of chemical equilibrium is reached when the concentration of reactants and product are constant over time (Wikipedia). ... In contrast, steady state is when the state variables are constant over time while there is a flow through the system (Wikipedia)."

In terms of tidal forces only, the Earth/Moon/Sun (+other planets) system is closed to other flows. So perhaps by definition, the observed tidal cycles actually are the equilibrium solution. Or that whatever caused the initial orbital motions long ago, and in the context of extremely low dissipation of energy, the tides are still part of a natural response to the original (solar-system formation) stimulus.