The best advice to give someone trying to work geophysical fluid dynamics models is not to get stuck over absolute quantitative estimates but instead work on the relative behavioral patterns. As an example, consider the path of understanding that conventional tidal analysis took as the mathematical approaches matured. Initially, many scientists thought one could make absolute predictions of the sea-level-height change due to tides. Yet for reasons tied into self-gravitational pull and specific boundary conditions, it quickly became obvious that the absolute values derived from first-principles could just as well be calibrated via measurement and then all subsequent computations could be made relative to the calibration. But this only works if you know the parametric behavioral pattern to work from. So when you find a geophysics or climate paper that spends way too much time trying to calculate the absolute value of a particular measure, it means that they likely don't have a working pattern either.

Along these lines, there is a most intense discussion over approximately solving fluid dynamics equations that I have yet to encounter, focused on this submitted paper :
["Quasi-hydrostatic equations for climate models and the study on linear instability"](https://gmd.copernicus.org/preprints/gmd-2020-146/#discussion). This consists of over a dozen rounds of reviewer/author interaction (with a few pointed accusations, and a referee trying to cool things down).

Since there is no comparison to data, the long back-and-forth discussion amounts to arguing how best to close a set of fluid dynamics equations with selected approximations and reductions. Anything is possible by manipulating the math equations, but as I said in my initial review, all that matters is what works to describe the climate behaviors observed. Until that occurs -- as I said in a subsequent comment : *"Otherwise, in the absence of a real-world context, there is no end in sight"* and the back-and-forth argument will continue.

Next, go read a recent blog page I wrote -- https://geoenergymath.com/the-just-so-story-narrative/ -- where I explain how marketing hype may get ahead of the quality of the science. There are still unresolved issues in climate science, many of these having to do with solving the prickly Navier-Stokes equations. As I said the solutions may not be as chaotic as many are led to believe, but neither do they have the necessary patterns to apply to get out of this mess. What's left is that many of the papers are left to qualitative musings (the [just-so stories of Rudyard Kipling](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Just-so_story)) that may sound plausible but don't lead to anything quantitative.