PaulP wrote: "kindergarten-level connect the dots"
What dots?? How does the hexagonal pattern emerge?
Still trying to understand what "non-local in time" should mean. Perhaps "not close in time" just as non-local "action at a distance" is understood. Therefore, in a Chaotic System, "sensitivity to initial conditions" is increasingly non-local the longer time has elapsed.
[Mann et al, 2020] is simply asserting that we have not yet certainly identified cycles longer than ENSO frequency, because the data is so noisy. The cool part is predicting such cycles for future confirmation. Its a reasonable conjecture that they exist, under harmonic and complexity theories.
For example, the Ice Age Cycle is surely an oceanic and atmospheric oscillatory motion cycle, not just molecular-scale temperature oscillation. There are thus probable harmonic overtones between ENSO and Ice Ages hidden deep in the data sets, despite great differences in frequency and amplitude.
[Mann et al, 2020] link-