>One of the things I’ve been looking at over the last couple of weeks is the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature dataset, and trying to figure out how one might formulate some statistical measure one could use to determine if “climate change” is present in the data. Obviously one thing that often happens is that this is done via plugging the data in to climate models, but that involves an extra level of variables that need to be fitted (which is fine if one has expertise in actual climate models).
I am not sure but by what you write it seems you assume that the underlying temperature data has been received via measurements in contrast to received via simulation?
I don't know for which data set exactly you are heading for on that page, but at least for some temperature data IT SEEMS it has been explicitly outlined that THE UNDERLYING TEMPERATURES ARE NOT FROM MEASUREMENTS. That is for example the:
README of the gridded data
>This file describes the format used by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature project for gridded data fields. These fields contain reconstructed monthly temperature anomaly values generated by the Berkeley Earth project based on our method of climate analysis.
In any case one could of course still try to "formulate statistical measure one could use to determine if “climate change” is present in the data" even if the data may not be based on real measurements. Actually it could be fun for you to test your statistical indicators also for other simulations like for example as in climate change games like in this
, but I don't know how available the temperature data is for this game.