An insight into Topological Edge Modes cited in recent posts:
Edge Modes in MetaMaterial Science are commonly described as waves moving around the edge of a topologically insulated bulk.
However, under Galilean Invariance, its just as valid to see the bulk as the flowing part, and Edge Modes as stationary boundary-layer dynamics.
Therefore, we can indentify atmospheric Jet Streams as Topological Insulator and Edge Mode cases. Bulk Jet Flow comprises a Topological Insulator lubricated by Edge Mode vortices. We can also see Edge Modes in Boundaries between bulk volumes and areas in relative motion. This extends Topological identifications in Atmospheric Science.
We can see that for Airborne Wind Energy as kinetic energy harvesting between bulk opposed geo flow, polymer AWES tethers span a Boundary Edge Mode layer (aka Surface Boundary Layer). This amounts to a Phonon Tunneling Mode, as described in this reference copied from a related topic.
On virtual phonons, photons, and electrons;
Gunter Nimtz 2018;
Physikalisches Institut, Universtat zu Koln