Estimates vary as to what the total kinetic energy of Earth's Wind is, and how much could be sustainably extracted to power civilization. Complex estimation is required, especially as to when and where kinetic energy of Wind is extracted. Wind Energy Extraction is also a geoengineering factor, with the possibility of controlling climate, for better or worse, and even reversing harmful climate change.

This Topic is not confined to relatively limited conventional Wind Energy at the surface, but includes the vast potential for Airborne Wind Energy (AWE) Extraction up to the Tropopause (~10km high). The scope of discussion is both geophysical and technological, reasoning about Wind top-down, from largest to smallest scale.

Here is the classic starting reference in AWE, at Global Scale-

Archer, C. L., and K. Caldeira, 2009: Global assessment of high-altitude wind power. Energies,2(2), 307–319, doi: 10.3390/en20200307